Water is one of the basic needs. With growing population and industrial pollution has increased thereby causing environmental degradation. Drinking water needs to be pure,clean and safe otherwise it leads to many health complications. So purification of water is very much necessary to stay healthy and being aware of those purification techniques would be even more important which ensures quality of water.Naturally water contains lots of minerals among which some can be essential and some taking in excess can be harmful and can cause many diseases.

How water purifiers work

Hence a purifier is important to remove those excessive salts and suspended particles, microbes,also to ensure essential vitamins and minerals are retained. Water filters and purifiers work similarly.Contaminated water undergoes various stages of sequential filtration by removing impurities ranging from sediments and chemicals and microorganisms. The only difference between a purifier and a filter is that it can remove viruses and bacteria either by using chemicals or electrostatic charge to kill them.

Chlorination of water

This is one of the traditional methods of purifying water. Addition of chlorine to water can release hydrochloric acid which kills microorganisms. Also it has adverse effects on health and is ineffective to kill certain types of protozoa, and other microbes.

Purifiers are equipped with different filter systems depending on the type of filter and what needs to be filtered.

Activated carbon filter

Helps to purify gases that are soluble in water such as chlorine, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and organic material. Absorb chlorine , pollutants like pesticides because of its porous nature.Carbon filters lined with activated silver can kill bacteria.

Biosand Filter

Concrete or plastic chambers filled with layers of sand and gravel which helps to remove suspended solids and harmful microbes or pathogens from water need to be filtered. Water must be free of chemicals but this fails in removing most of the chemicals. Bacteria and other microbes form a biolayer on the top of sand to kill infectious organisms or pathogens in water which helps in improving the quality of water. It is helpful to remove suspended particles and infectious microbes.

Biosand Filter

Reverse Osmosis Filter

Provides multi levels filtration of water where active carbon and particle filtration method is executed. When water passes through the membrane made of a polymer film with tiny pores which helps in filtering out minerals and microbes from water. Flushing out impurities through an outlet. It also improves the taste of water. It can be completely safe as its a membrane for any reasons like manufacturing defect or due to wear and tear then some microbes can pass through the membrane. This is an important feature of best water purifier in India .

Ultra Violet UV filters

Radiating UV light onto the water can kill any bacteria and other organisms by affecting DNA in the cells. This is also capable of removing pesticides up to 99 percent. Effective to remove pathogens but inefficient in removing suspended particles, chemicals, taste, etc.

Ceramic filter  

These contain hollow cylinders made of clay mixed with combustible material. These help to drain out bacteria through pores. Helps in removing chlorine and bacteria like E.coli up to 99 percent. Prevents water from recontamination as it provides safe storage capacity.

Ion Exchange Resin Filters

When water passes over resins then water gets softened as resin absorbs minerals present in it. Helps in the de-mineralization of water.

Things you should look for before buying a water filter or purifier for home.

First Knowing the chemistry of water and levels of contamination in water is required. This can be achieved by analysis of drinking water in the laboratory including general water tests, nitrates /nitrites, PH, total dissolved solids etc. Then you can choose whether there is a requirement for a filter that helps remove dissolved salt from water or a purifier that kills harmful microbes. Also do consider you want a purifier for only drinking water or for the entire domestic water supply.

Find a renowned brand in the market supplying certified quality products. Also Consider their accreditation given by Acclaimed institutions like National Sanitation Foundation (NSF), Water Quality Association(WQA), Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that ensure safety marks for customers.

Although best quality filters and membranes are quite expensive, comparing the features, prices and maintenance cost, etc of purifiers would be a great help to find the best water


Water purifiers are very essential for safe drinking and good health. Save water Save Life!